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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 289
of social life. G. M. McLachen, back in the 1960s and 1970s, assumed that modern nomads would move quickly everywhere, use everything they needed right along the way, without needing a permanent home. J. Attali in the 1980s used this term to predict a new era, when members of the elite, rich and not too attached to their homeland, would fly around the world in search of new opportunities, whereas workers, poor and also not too attached to their homeland, would migrate looking for a better life. Later, J. Attali proposed to consider modern nomadism no longer as a subculture, but as a lifestyle of the third millennium man. He put forward the idea that future nomads are not just travelers without a specific place of deployment, but they are people who have no links with institutions such as the state, nation, and family .
In the 1990s, the concept of modern nomadism was enriched by T. Makimoto, D. Manners in their book “Digital Nomad”, devoted to the latest technological possibilities .
Another concept of nomadism was presented by Spanish sociologist M. Castells, who suggests that nomadic mobility may be both virtual (Internet space) and global (physical movement) .
Nomadism allows one to learn new languages, cultures, expand the boundaries of consciousness and perception . A person starts belonging not only to a social and professional group, but, to a greater extent, to the communicative networks. As a result, people suffer less from nostalgia and a feeling of loss pertaining to the familiar living environment, home, relationships with loved ones.
According to L. Fortunati, nomads’ use of mobile communications allows to build a space without an address and precise localization. A mobile phone and a virtual environment themselves become a real home at any place provided communication is accessible at any time. At the same time, according to the author, every space-temporal and social change contributes to the construction of a nomad's identity and self-presentation .
W. Mitchell coined the term “field of presence”, which stands for the possibility of carrying out activities (participation in the production process) at a distance, with the result that the traditional binding of a person to a certain place becomes irrelevant. Remote communications give rise to “digital nomads” who operate outside given conditions and use space situationally . These processes may not require the physical presence of a person.
Some linguists, in particular N. S. Baron, believe that nomadism should cause concern, since the dominant way of thinking within a nomadic culture neglects the language, so that the language does not matter, and this will further aggravate social risks .
A whole caste of “digital nomads” is formed abroad, which represents both individual travelers and families traveling for many years and earning their living along the way, following the idea of deterritorialization.
The analysis of intenational sources allowed one not only to summarize scientific research, but also to obtain information about digital nomadism on Internet sites. These are books, articles, stories about the nomadic lifestyles of different professions – writers, web developers, photographers, etc.; recommendations, with step-by-step instructions on the nomadic way of life, on how to fulfill the dreams of spatial independence, how one can change one's life and the world around.
Certainly, Russian Internet resources also provide information about this lifestyle; moreover, nomads themselves share experience and give tips on how to minimize the negative effects of this unique and, in some ways, risky lifestyle.
I. P. Kuzheleva-Sagan believes that digital nomadism is a sociocultural phenomenon belonging exclusively to the modern network information-communication society, because it arose primarily due to the Internet, the latest digital and mobile technologies, and the widespread wireless communications. Digital nomads are mainly characterised by their mobility and constant connection to the global Internet. The author believes that digital nomadism will soon become a worldwide phenomenon for all territories covered by satellite communications, therefore raising a number of various questions, including developing a strategy for business communications in the digital nomadism environment .
Digital nomads use digital telecommunication technologies to fulfill their professional duties, they are able to use a whole range of professional activities: programming and web-design; design in all its possible forms; tutoring, counseling, distance learning (voice and video communication via Skype); system administration; photography and video shooting; photo processing – retouching, restoration, etc.; text writing for various subjects, search promotion and others.
Digital nomads as a special social category are characterized by a mobile lifestyle, dynamism, the result of which is constant movement. Accordingly, the modern man’s mobility develops from an optional property into an integral characteristic of human nature. The second such quality is the need for unlimited freedom, a certain preference for space, which does not press, like time, on human consciousness.
The bulk of modern digital nomads are fairly rational people who consciously choose the nomadic behavior as a manifestation of their life position. This is a kind of departure from the existing system of values, imposed stereotypes and standards, an attempt to improve the quality of life (in the sense that burdensomeness of numerous rules and norms of social behavior peters out). In this regard, the individual ego is achieved not within the generally accepted norms, but sometimes, contrary to them.
The system of values is formed in an individual’s socialization, and it results in a relatively stable and independent characteristic for the individual. The choice of values is huge; however, only some of them become
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