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MAKIMOTO LIBRARY / Exhibit V contributions to newly opening markets such as robotics, medical and health care, the smart grid,
and sensor networks.
It is quite likely that CMOS will remain in the mainstream of device structures for “more Moore” direction in the foreseeable future, since there is no sign of the emergence of a new device that can replace CMOS. One strength of CMOS in IC technology is that it serves many functions, including digital logic, memories, buffers, clock trees, analog, RF, voltage generation and power supply, temperature compensation, and ESD protection. The future, however, is not a simple extrapolation of past trends, and CMOS will take different paths of innovation as it moves ahead, as discussed below.
CMOS chips will keep increasing in integration density on a monolithic chip by shrinking the device geometry, introducing new materials, and adopting new device structures such as the FinFET. Increasing the density on a chip will however become ever more difficult. There are two reasons for this. First, the feature size of the device is fast approaching the theoretical limit determined not only by physical constraints but also by increasing leakage currents and parameter variations. Second, investment for device development and for manufacturing is becoming prohibitively expensive. Due to these difficulties, extending Moore’s Law will become harder than before.
A countermeasure for this issue is the 3-D integration of chips. Various new technologies, such as through silicon via (TSV), are being developed, and they will contribute to the realization of 3-D integration. TSV is a technology that can connect chip to chip by opening holes through the Si chips. Figure 6 shows the historical evolution of device structures used to extend Moore’s Law. It can be seen from the figure that CMOS has played the major role over the past several decades in extending the trend. Looking to the future, the 3-D integration of CMOS chips will extend Moore’s Law for one or more decades, and it will contribute to increasing the figure of merit for electronic equipment.
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