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Publication Title | Working from home: A double edged sword

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(Clark, 2000). Employees who favor integration of work and home activities are more likely to favor weaker boundaries.
Kreiner et al (2009) propose four divisions to manage boundaries between work and home namely: physical, behavioral, home-based and communicative tactics. Teleworking challenges boundary management because the usual physical and time-based boundaries of the office space are absent. A study of a large public sector organization in the UK shows how their long- standing teleworking programme results in above average productivity for teleworkers compared to their office counterparts. Forty in- depth interviews with occasional teleworkers, partial teleworkers (20-50 per cent of teleworkers) and full teleworkers who work the majority of the time away from the office were carried out. The interviews yielded evidence that teleworkers employ physical, time-based, behavioral and communicative strategies for managing boundaries between work and home. In relation to physical activities, it was found some employees had an office space in their home while others create separate space for work activities and switch off. In relation to time-based activities, although most people worked beyond contracted time, many had strategies in place e.g. to walk the dogs at 5pm, children returning from school. Commitments to other people appears to produce stronger boundaries than being accountable only to oneself. The behavioral strategies employed relate mainly to information technology such as switching phone off when business time finishes, logging off computer systems, shutting down the laptop, thus removing the temptation to check messages. Communicative strategies included getting family members to knock before entering the work space. According to Kreiner (2006) boundary management is a question of individual preferences, but the ability to manage preference can result in reduced work/ life conflict and stress and higher job satisfaction. Research shows that the danger lies in work spilling over into home time.
Behavioral tactics are social practices that are used to decrease work/home conflicts (Kreiner et al, 2009). In a study conducted by Von Borell de Araujo et al (2015, pp. 570-576) applying the boundary tactics of Kreiner at al (2009)

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